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This paper is divided into three sections (Comprehension lexis and Structure)
Answer all questions in your answer sheets


Instructions: There is a passage in this Section, and it is followed by questions. From the four options lettered A to D given in each question, choose one which most accurately reflects the meaning of the passage, and shade your answer sheet accordingly.



Deforestation has serious consequences. it leads to soil erosion which was an underlying cause of Ethiopia's famine. Crops of maize are planted on 45 degrees slopes without terraced. Within three or four seasons, the topsoil has been washed away by the torrential rains, and the hill is useless for farming.

Another consequence is more subtle forests held on to moisture and are essential factors of rainfall through transpiration. Extensive deforestation may have exacerbated the drought in Africa: fewer forests mean less rainfall and desertification.

For the key and pushed down on the lower, flatter bush country its chances of successful farming are little better. Here the soil is dry as dust; it needs careful management if it’s to produce food. But the newly arrived shamba farmers don't have the experience to farm effectively. There isn't enough rainfall down here to grow more. So, it has to be more hardy grains like millet and sorghum. In years of severe drought, even those grains do not produce a good harvest and malnutrition in these areas is an increasing problem.

The real energy crisis is in wood, not oil. Trees are falling faster than nature or man is replacing them. This drier land is really much better suited to grazing cattle or goats, but it's so easy to overgraze. When the sparse vegetation is made even sparser, the topsoil is liable to blow away. Soil erosion on the marginal land is as bad as on the hills.


1. Deforestation has had serious consequences in Africa. One of such is __.
A. Soil erosion
B. Ethiopia’s famine
C. Torrential rainfall
D. Drought

2. Another less obvious but serious consequence of deforestation is ___
A. drought
B. drought and desertification
C. less rainfall
D. soil erosion

3. Which of these is not true according to the passage.
A. Torrential rains render the hills useless for farming
B. Extensive deforestation intensified drought in Africa
C. Grains like millet and sorghum are more suitably grown in drought seasons
D. The sparser the vegetation, the easier it is for the topsoil to be blown away

4. Which of these is true according to the passage.
A. The fast felling of trees is causing real energy crisis
B. Chances of successful farming are better on the higher than the lower lands
C. Soil erosion is worse on the hills
D. The shamba farms have the experience of farming on the lower country

5. Which of these words can be used in place of ‘’exacerbated’’
A. aggravated
B. lessened
C. worst
D. alleviate


The passage below has gaps numbered 6 to 15. Immediately following each gap, four options are provided. Choose the most appropriate option for each gap.

It is the business of the scientist to accumulate knowledge about the universe and all that is in it, and to find, if he is able, common...6... [A. experiments B. instruments C. approaches D. factors] which underlie and account for the facts that he knows. He chooses, when he can, the method of the controlled common ...7... [A. respondents B. experiment C. System D. data]. If he wants to find out the effect of light on growing plants, he takes many plants, as alike as possible. Some he stands in the sun, some in the shade, some in the dark; all the time keeping all other ...8... [ A. studies   B. procedures C. objects D. conditions] (temperature, moisture, nourishment) the same. In this way, by keeping other variables...9... [ A. constant B. good C. dark D. natural] and by varying the light only, the effect of light on plants can be clearly seen. This ... 10... [A. research B. method C. tool  D. rationale] of using 'controls' can be applied to a variety of situations and can be used to find the answers to questions as widely different as must moisture be present if...11... [A. an alloy B. gold C. bar D. iron] is to rust? And which variety of beans gives the greatest yield in one ...12... [ A. climate B. period C. season D. weather]?

In the course of his ...13... [A. findings B. queries C. experiment D. inquiries].
The scientist may find what he thinks is one common explanation for an increasing number of facts. The explanation, if it seems consistent to fit the various facts, is called ...14... [ A. an antithesis B. a principle C. a thesis   D. a hypothesis]. If this continues to stand the test of numerous experiments and remains unshaken, it becomes a ...15... [ A. deduction   B. law  C. notion  D. thesis].


Instructions: From alternative A-D, choose the word or group of words then are opposite or almost opposite in meaning to the underlined word.

16. He has shown himself to be quite an amiable character.
A. aggressive
B. antagonistic
C. friendly
D. peaceful

17. The chaotic manner she conducted things put everyone off.
A. hazardous
B. organized
C. simple
D. messed up

18.  There was an abundance of rainfall last year.
A. insufficient
B. death
C. shortfall
D. inappropriate

19. The preacher gave a purely self-denouncing speech
A. sanctimonious
B. selfish
C. selfless
D. righteous

20. The school teacher carries himself with an air of indolence.
A. laziness
B. dexterity
C. ingenuity
D. difference

21. The measures that are being taken will alleviate the pressures on us a Nation.
A. deflate
B. account for
C. aggravate
D. discount

22. The ambassador was subjected to a servile treatment throughout his incarceration.
A. prestigious
B. diplomatic
C. gigantic
D. gracious

 23. The lady seemed quite aware of everything around
A. watchful
B. oblivious
C. notified
D. Blank

24. The diet looked repulsive initially, I almost gave up.
A. attractive
B. repelling
C. repugnant
D. reputable

25. He is often regarded as an eccentric man
A.  unconventional
B.  conventional
C.  insane
D.  likeable

In each of questions 26 to 35, select the option that best explains the information conveyed in the sentence.

26.  If l left the country, I would arrange for my family to join me.
A. He left the country and his family joined him.
B. In the event of his leaving the country, his family would join him.
C. He did not leave the country and his family did not join him.
D. He may not leave the country.

27.  A state of mutual hatred existed for years between the two villages of Umuna and Ogboma.
A. Umuna hated Ogboma
B. Ogboma hated Umuna
C. Ogboma and Umuna hated themselves
D. Umuna and ogboma hated each other.

28.  The painting in the museum was beautifully faked.
A. The painting was a good deceptive replica
B. The painting was well-framed and displayed
C. The painting was deceptively decorated in the museum
D. The painting was carefully hung in the museum.

29.  Ade: Do you mind if I sit down here? Bola: Well, yes l do actually.
A. Bola is reluctantly granting the request.
B. Bola is willingly accepting the request
C. Bola is certainly rejecting the request
D. Bola is objecting to the request.

30.  The President held forth for several minutes on the need for patriotism.
A. The President was silent for some minutes when patriotism was being discussed.
B. The President whispered a few things about patriotism
C. The President spent time saying a few things about Patriots
D. The President gave a rather long speech on the importance of patriotism.

31.  The slide in the price of gold in the world market has left the industry reeling
A. The gradual fall in gold price is making the industry unstable
B. The stability in gold price is making the industry stagnant
C. The decline in gold price is making the industry redundant
D. The increase in gold price is making the industry boom.

32.  Fabricated statements published as truths amount to an abuse of press freedom.
A. To make known what is not true is aggressive to press freedom.
B. Publishing formulated untruths are misused press freedom
C. unplanned publicized untruths are misused of the freedom of the press
D. Press freedom is based on published untruths.

33.  The expected guests arrived at the eleventh hour.
A. The guests arrived at the last minute.
B. The guests arrived at 11 o'clock
C. The guests arrived at the expected time
D. The guests arrived eleven hours behind schedule.

34.  After addressing the court for two hours, the defence counsel rested her case.
A. The defence counsel was tired after speaking for two hours, so she took a break
B. The judge adjourned the defence counsel's case after listening for two hours
C. The defence counsel concluded her defence after speaking for two hours
D. The judge advised the defence counsel to rest after two hours of address.

35.  Benjamin exclaimed, 'If it is Napoleon who said, it must be right'
A. Benjamin never believes what Napoleon says
B. Benjamin does not know what is right unless Napoleon always says.
C. Benjamin believes Napoleon to be right.
D. Benjamin thinks that Napoleon always says the right thing.

In each of the questions 36-40, fill each gap with the most appropriate option from the list provided.

36. I do not think any sane person would have acted in such a ….. [A. rational B.composed C. secret D. cruel] manner.

37. Neither Agbo nor his parents ..... [A. attended B. attend C. has attended D. attends] the meetings now

38. Modern dancing has become rather scientific and so requires.... [A bizarre costuming B. some choreographic skill C. immense instrumentation D. a rapping voice]

39. Had he considered his public image carefully, he ... [A. might have stood aside B. would have stepped aside C. should have stepped down D. would have stood down] for his opponent in the election.

40. The government which .... recruiting ... [A. are/its  B. was/its C. is/their D. were/their] workers suddenly stopped doing so.


1.   A
2.   C
3.   C
4.   C
5.   A
6.   D
7.   D
8.   D
9.   A
10. B
11. D
12. A
13. A
14. D
15. A
16. B
17. B
18. C
19. A
20. C
21. C
22. A
23. B
24. A
25. B
26. B
27. D
28. A
29. B
30. C
31. A
32. B
33. A
34. C
35. D
36. D
37. B
38. B
39. B
40. B

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